History Courses

History Core Courses

Perspectives in U.S. History:

These foundational courses examine the full sweep of American history from the perspective of a particular critical lens:

  • 103 American Political History
  • 104 Race and Ethnicity in American History
  • 150 Introductory Topics in History
  • 240 American Environmental Relations
  • 241 Environmental Injustice
  • 242 Women in American History

Perspectives in Global History:

These foundational courses examine the eras in global history from the perspective of a particular critical lens:

  • 161 Pre-modern Roots of Cultural Diversity
  • 162 Human Civilization and the Natural World Since 1500
  • 164 Race and Identity
  • 165 Free and Unfree Labor
  • 261 Indian Ocean World
  • 262 Politics of Identity

322 Historical Methods (4 credits)

This course introduces the students to the fundamental skills of historical research.

Students work with primary and secondary source materials in the archives, online, and in print. They learn to distinguish primary from secondary sources, to understand the problems that various sources pose to interpretation, and to identify the types of questions particular sources can answer. They learn to read these sources critically and to think historically. Students learn the identifying characteristics of monographs and are introduced to historiography. They learn how to quote properly, to summarize, and to annotate sources. Finally they apply their skills in both a series of short writing assignments, including review essays, interpretive source critiques, précis, and a substantial research paper based on primary and secondary sources. From the skills acquired in this course, the student should have the methodological foundation needed to conduct research in any course that involves historical analysis, and to be prepared for senior thesis. (NOT offered in January Term.) Prerequisite: History Major or Minor status. We recommend that this course be taken a student’s second year, or in the first semester at Hartwick for transfer students.

Senior Capstone or Thesis:

  • A 400-Level Capstone Seminar or
  • 490 Senior Seminar/Thesis

History Courses, Regular Offerings

Courses are offered in areas of concentration: Latin American, European, American, Global, and Advanced History.

103 American Political History

This course examines politics in British North America/United States up to the present day. Topics include: the politics of empire and independence; the emergence of an American political culture; the Confederation era and the drafting of the U.S. Constitution; the origins and workings of the party systems; the changing concept of citizenship especially in regard to race, class, and gender; the rise and fall of the liberal state. (3 credits)

104 Race and Ethnicity in American History

This course is a survey of the dynamic of race and ethnicity from the colonial era to the present day. Topics include: Native Americans and the project of colonization; the rise of slavery and the birth of African American culture; race and republican citizenship; the politics of “whiteness,” labor and immigration; the operation of a black/white racial binary in a multi-ethnic society; the rise of scientific racism; and strategies of opposition and resistance. (3 credits)

150 Introductory Topics in History

From time to time the department will offer courses for small groups of students, particularly freshmen. Students may elect HIST 150 more than once, provided they do not repeat the same topic. (3 credits)

161 Pre-modern Roots of Cultural Diversity

This course will introduce students to the diverse cultures of the pre-modern world. The descriptions and analyses of these cultures will highlight their distinct religious and ethical systems and their definitions of political identities. Following a survey of the historical roots of these cultural and political systems, the course will examine their distinct responses to world wide crises in political and social order from the third to tenth centuries C.E. The final section of the class will survey the world in the century prior to the era of European oversees expansion. (3 credits)

162 Human Civilization and the Natural World Since 1500

A survey of social, political, cultural and economic developments in world history, focusing on the diversity of cultural perspectives on humanity’s relation to the natural world, the use of material resources, and the organization of production. Major themes will include exploration; trade routes and global economy; comparative systems of explaining the place of human beings in the world (science, philosophy, religion); and the relationship between these scientific, philosophical, and religious systems and dominant political and social orders. (3 credits)

164 Race and Identity

How do you define “race” in the United States? How do you identify yourself? Are you aware how other people (and society) label you as a member of a certain racial group? Are there any critical conflicts between society’s categorization and individual identities? How can the notion of race differ in a specific historical context? Could your individual racial identity change in a different time and space? This course discusses various important issues of race and identity not only in the U.S. but also in other parts of the New World with a comparative historical perspective. (3 credits)

165 Free and Unfree Labor

This course is a survey of world labor history, focusing on the period 1500-present. The first unit examines the various forms of unfree labor, including serfdom, slavery, servitude, and peonage. The second unit surveys the ways in which laboring people resisted and sought to shape their own worlds. The final unit examines labor during and after the Age of Revolution, focusing on the rise of wage labor and its attendant problems, as well as workers’ movements. Special attention will be paid to the connections between class, race, and gender. (3 credits)

201 Colonial Latin America

This course is an overview of the most significant historical processes and themes that contributed to the formation, evolution and development of Colonial Latin America. The course studies the main streams that have contributed to the emergence of Latin America, from pre-Columbian cultures and the first encounter between the Old and New Worlds to the military, religious and bureaucratic conquests of the New World and the formation and evolution of a colonial society that came to an end with the Wars of Independence from Spain in the early 19th century. (3 credits)

202 Modern Latin America

This course examines the most significant themes, events and personages that played an important role in shaping contemporary Latin America. The period under examination encompasses the two centuries beginning with the precursors of the Wars of Independence in the 19th century and the events taking place at the close of the 20th century. (3 credits)

208 History of Republican and Imperial Rome

An introduction to the history and culture of the ancient Romans from their origins up to the death of Constantine. The class explores the life, beliefs and institutions of these people through an examination of their cultural and political achievements. (3 credits)

209 Medieval Europe

This course traces the emergence of Europe through the synthesis of Greek, Christian, Roman and Germanic cultures. The survey will begin with the collapse of the Pax Romana in the third century and conclude with the crisis of the 14th century and its immediate aftermath. The survey will focus on Western Europe, but the class will discuss Byzantium and Islam as unique civilizations, which profoundly influenced European culture. (3 credits)

210 Early Modern Europe

This course first examines the birth of modern Europe in the Italian Renaissance. It then considers the religious and political forces, which shredded the fabric of Christian unity and ushered in an age of religious and dynastic warfare that produced the modern constitutional and absolutist states. The survey will then examine the cultural, economic and political impact of overseas exploration, the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment. The survey culminates with a close examination of the French and Industrial Revolutions. (3 credits)

212 Europe, 1815-1914

Pivotal events in nineteenth-century European History, including: Industrialization and its consequences; political revolutions and ideologies: nationalism; the labor question; and cultural and intellectual movements such as Romanticism. Attention will also be devoted to the prevailing cultural assumptions about race, class and gender which defined Europeans’ sense of identity and their place in the world, as well as scientific and economic theories which were used to justify European imperialism. (3 credits)

213 Europe in Twentieth Century

Major events in twentieth-century European history, including the origins and catastrophic nature of World War I; the Russian revolution and Communist and Fascist challenges to strained democratic societies; economic depression; World War II and the Holocaust; the Cold War and the eclipse of Europe by the Superpowers; the loss of colonial empires; reform and revolution in Eastern and Western Europe, and the gradual formation of a more cooperative European community; emerging challenges of globalization in the twenty-first century (economic conflict, immigration, sustainable development. (3 credits)

215 Tudor-Stuart History

A survey of Tudor-Stuart English history (ca. 1485-1688), one of the most important periods of Western European history as it shaped much of English society into the present even as it served as a baseline for much of what would be reinforced, continued, or altered as the English confronted the complexities of the “New World.” (3 credits)

216 Witchcraft and Witch-Hunting 

Between 1450 and 1750, European authorities engaged in witch-hunting in Europe and later in their overseas colonies. This class will explore the educated theories and popular beliefs regarding witchcraft, examine individual cases, and explore the actual and imagined practices identified as diabolical witchcraft by the hunters. We will read extensively in the new, contentious, and rich literature on witchcraft and witch-hunting. We also will work with descriptive and prescriptive primary sources. Student work will include review essays of the extant literature, an individual research project, a mid-term, and a final exam. (3 credits)

219 Imagined Communities in France 

An interactive, cross-cultural study of the historical construction of the French sense of identity and the different forms of “community” (national, historical, cultural, and religious) in which the identity of being “French” is either invented or challenged. France will serve as a test case for some of the broader issues in the formation of community throughout Europe. Although the program will be based in the Loire valley city of Tours, students will visit Paris, famed castles of the Loire Valley, and other historic and cultural centers. Offered off-campus in France in January Term. (4 credits, EL)

225 History of Brazil 

Through lecturers, readings, and discussions, together with films and slides, this course examines changes and continuities in Brazilian history from independence (1822) to the present. Special emphasis is placed on race, class, gender, and ethnicity. We will discuss how colonial heritages determined the “fate” of Brazil as a modern nation-state; and how various forms of power relationship emerged, evolved, disappeared, and/or transformed during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. (3 credits)

240 American Environmental Relations 

An exploration of American attitudes toward the natural environment, the course will examine the roots of nature appreciation and the genesis of the conservation movement in its utilitarian, ecological and aesthetic camps, and will trace the environmental movement to the present. (3 credits)

241 Environmental Injustice 

This course analyzes the historical connection between the degradation of people, e.g., communities of color, and degradation of the environment, that is the link between racism/poverty and pollution. We begin with an analysis of the conditions of enslaved Blacks and the soil in the tobacco and cotton South. In the modern period, we analyze environmental and social issues in migrant agricultural labor, as well as environmental degradation in communities of color and/or poverty. We utilize the analytical lenses of race, ethnicity, regionalism, gender and class. However, in our analysis we are very careful NOT to portray the community members or agricultural workers as simply “victims.” Thus, we also focus on their diverse responses, e.g., protesting and organizing, for example, forming the United Farm Workers (UFW). Also, more subtle forms of environmental injustice will be discussed, e.g., the economically privileged nature of many environmental “solutions” and campaigns. For our research project (paper/presentation), students conduct research on evidence of environmental injustices and organized responses in their home community/area. (3 credits, EL)

242 Women in American History 

A survey of women’s collective experience in America from the colonial period to the present. Emphasis will be upon the relationship of defined sex roles to the broader society in a given historical context. Topics include women and family life, women on the frontier, Black and ethnic women, the impact of industrialization upon women’s roles and feminism as a historical movement. (3 credits)

244 Baseball in American History 

This course is not a history of baseball; rather, it uses baseball to examine important issues in American history. Among these themes are industrialization and the rise of leisure time, race and segregation, immigration and ethnicity, gender, labor, and national identity. (3 credits)

245 World War II on the Home Front 

When students enroll in this course, they enlist “for the duration,” in order to “reconstruct” the Home Front from Pearl Harbor to “V-J” Day. This course is normally taught in January Term with its daily classes in only one subject, giving students the opportunity to solely and totally concentrate their attention on this goal, making it easier to reconstruct the home front. Daily exercises in recreating the home front include music of the period, letters, diary entries, columns by war correspondent Ernie Pyle, excerpts from oral histories, and incorporation of WWII home front artifacts. Besides this “hands-on” approach to history, students critically analyze WWII as “The Good War” and examine the historiography, especially the debate over WWII as a “watershed” in the 20th Century, addressing the question, “was WWII’s impact on society an example of continuity or change?” (3 credits)

247 The Sixties 

While this course includes tie-dye, counterculture studies and 60s era movies, it also involves the same serious, historical analysis as any history course, being equally READING & WRITING intensive. In studying the Sixties, we study the Cold War, the Vietnam War, Civil Rights and Black Power Movements, and the various other Movements that sprouted from the fertile soil of The Sixties, such as the Women’s Movement, Red Power, and Environmentalism. Students engage in a research project (paper/presentation) on their family’s history during The Sixties. Class participation is always guaranteed in the “Found Sixties Objects” days (paper/presentation). (3 credits, EL)

248 Vietnam War 

Course examines Vietnam War as a Cold War war, with a strong emphasis on U.S. foreign relations over the course of the Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon/Ford administrations. In discussing combat, the emphasis is on the experiences of the “grunts” on the battlefield, including Tim O’Brien’s book, The Things They Carried. Who fought/who didn’t will be considered. The War at Home (i.e., anti-war protests) and the intersection of the Vietnam War and Civil Rights/Black Power Movements will be examined, especially Rev. Martin Luther King’s opposition to the war. Students will research their family’s history during the Vietnam War Era for a paper and presentation. (3 credits, EL)

249 Civil Rights Movement 

After setting the stage in the late 19th and early 20th centuries concerning the social, economic, and political conditions of African Americans in the South and North, we will examine the Civil Right Movement (CRM) in the mid-20th Century. We will also analyze the Black Power Movement, the complex and changing ideology of Malcolm X, and the radicalization of Martin Luther King, Jr. An ongoing topic is the role of the media in the CRM & Black Power. Other issues include the influence of the CRM on U.S. foreign policy during the Cold War, the intersection of the Vietnam War and Black Power and CRM, and the CRM/Black Power on other ’60s-’70s movements, e.g., the Chicano Movement. We will consider the arts—music and graphics arts—in the CRM and Black Power. In order to understand larger issues of discrimination and recognize the presence of discrimination around us, each student will conduct a major research project (paper/presentation) on the history of race relations and the current presence of racism and other forms of discrimination in their home communities. This project is designed to open our eyes to the subtle forms of discrimination in the world around us and inspire us to actively oppose discrimination in all its forms. (3 credits, EL)

261 Indian Ocean World, 1300-1800 

An introduction to the history of the peoples and societies of India, Arabia, and East Africa, with an emphasis on the role of trade, religion, and cultural exchange in shaping the civilizations of the Delhi Sultanate, the Mughal Empire, cities of the East African Swahili Coast and the Ottoman Empire. The course will examine the thriving indigenous shipping and other exchange networks before the arrival of Europeans in 1498, with a primary focus on the Indian Ocean as a hub of human exchanges between India, Arabia, and Africa in the era of the classical Islamic world. (3 credits)

262 Politics of Identity 

Globalization, Diaspora, and Cultural Diversity: In our “global” age identity continues to be an extremely fascinating as well as complicated phenomenon. By utilizing journalistic accounts on contemporary issues, narratives, theoretical readings, feature movies, and documentary films, this course seeks to understand who and what we are, both at individual and collective levels, with special emphasis on globalization, Diaspora, and cultural diversity. (3 credits)

270 Revisiting Roots 

The primary objective of this course, combining historiography and genealogy, is to expose similarities and differences in the portrayal of the slavery system and its impact upon the family structure of the enslaved Africans and their descendants in Great Britain, the British West Indies, and the United States. This is done by critiquing required readings, analyzing an American television series, class discussions, and research labs, including possible off-campus visits. (3 credits, EL)

275 American Indian History to 1763 

From the peopling of the New World some 20,000 plus years ago to 1700, the rise of civilizations, the differentiation of cultures and the impact of European civilization on Indian America are mapped out and probed. The first third of the course will emphasize Indians’ world views and their relationships with each other and their varying environments. The course will then examine the social, religious, technological, ecological, and political changes that impacted Indian societies between 1492 and 1700. (3 credits)

276 American Indian History Since 1763 

The interaction between Native Americans and the United States from 1700 to the present. The topics covered include wars and alliances, trade patterns, revitalization movements, Federal-Indian relations, philanthropic and missionary activities, the reservation period, and the Red Power movement in the U.S. civil rights era. (3 credits)

283 Medicine & Public Health Since 1348 

Medicine and healing have changed much since the time of Black Death, when contemporaries blamed the disease on God’s wrath, planetary alignments, and even on Jews. This course will explore the evolution of medicine and healing since the plague pandemic of 1348-52, with particular emphasis on how political and cultural views have shaped who could practice medicine, who had access to care, and how societies responded to the threat of disease. We will also explore how health evolved from a personal matter to a national priority in modern states and the effect this had on the rights of individual citizens. Drawing upon health-themed short stories, plays, films, documentaries, art, written sources, and case studies, participants in the course will engage with past issues in health and medicine that still resonate in healthcare debates today. (3 credits)

Seminars and Capstone Seminars:

300-level seminars are open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors, and typically involve extensive reading, discussion and a research paper. Seniors (and, in exceptional cases, juniors) may register for one of the 400- level Capstone Seminars to complete their Capstone research project in that seminar, if they opt to do the Capstone project instead of HIST 490 Senior Thesis. The Capstone project is an article-length (30 pages) research paper based on original analysis of the primary-source evidence and historical scholarship relevant to the student’s chosen topic. Topics for Capstone projects must fall within the scope of the Capstone Seminar. As part of the Capstone project, students are required to present an oral defense of their research before the history faculty and their peers. Pre-requisites for all 400-level Capstone Seminars: Junior-level standing; history major status; a grade of C or better in HIST 322: Historical Methods; and completion of at least 31 credits in the history major (in addition to any pre-requisites listed for the companion 300-level seminar). Note: Students may not earn credit for both a 300-level seminar and its companion 400-level Capstone Seminar.

305/405 The Renaissance

This course will not be a chronological survey; instead it will cover the origins of the idea of the “Renaissance” and how this concept has framed Western perceptions of modernity. It will investigate the functional practicality of applying this concept to Italian culture and society between 1350 and 1550. The course has two goals: to provide an understanding of the world of the Italian Renaissance and to critique the values we have associated with that world. Students will be required to complete a major primary source-based research paper on a topic of their choosing. Prerequisites: 209, 210 or instructor’s permission. (4 credits, ILS)

306/406 Reformation Europe 1450-1600 

This course examines the dissolution of Medieval European culture as a system of regulated religious beliefs and established political relations between the Roman church and secular powers. It also will consider the economic dislocation and social tensions, which animated the Reformation passions, and examine the reintegration of these dynamic factors into new systems of belief and power during the age of confessional struggles. Students will be required to complete a major primary source-based research paper on a topic of their choosing. Prerequisites: HIST 209, 210 or instructor’s permission. (4 credits, ILS)

308/408 Enlightenment and Revolution 

This course examines the efforts of 18th-century intellectuals to rationalize the experiences of the 17th-century crises. It analyzes the political and social culture of the Old Regime and the growing friction among the powerful nation-states in Europe and overseas. Finally it considers the social, economic and political pressures which culminated in the French and Industrial revolutions and traces the trajectories of those revolutions. Students will be required to complete a major primary source-based research paper on a topic of their choosing. Prerequisites: HIST 210, 212, or instructor’s permission. (4 credits, ILS)

313/413 Europe and the World Wars 

World War I and World War II have long held a morbid fascination for many who have been both amazed and appalled at the scale of devastation that left millions dead and much of the continent in ruins. However, the impact of these wars extended beyond the battles to transform European views about the government, about women, about technology, and even about the nature of good and evil. This upper-level seminar will engage these issues through a critical examination of the historical debates about totalitarian dictatorships in Europe, the “failures” of the Versailles Treaty, anxieties about femininity, masculinity, and identity during the inter-war period, as well as other topics. Although there are no pre-requisites for this seminar, it is strongly recommended that students have some background in 20th century European history. Students will be required to complete a major primary source-based research paper on a topic of their choosing. (4 credits, ILS)

314/414 Modern European History 

This course is an advanced seminar focusing on major social, political, intellectual and cultural developments in European history during the 19th and 20th centuries. The emphasis will be on how Europeans in different regions and from different segments of society lived their lives and cultivated a sense of identity and community. Key themes will include gender roles; social class; race and identity; religion; and the consequences of industrialization. In any given semester, we might consider the struggles for Irish Home Rule, the emergence of department stores in France, or insane asylums in Victorian Britain, to offer just a few examples. Students enrolled in a particular term will have the opportunity to shape the specific content and focus of the course. This course may be repeated with different content, and may focus on several European countries or one (ex. Britain or France). Students will be required to complete a major primary source-based paper on a topic of their choosing. If a student repeats the course with different content, it bears the number 315. Pre-requisites: HIST 212 or 213, or permission of instructor. (4 credits, ILS)

320/410 Travels to the “Third World”

This seminar focuses on diverse Western writings on the “third world” (Latin America, Africa, and Asia) at various historical points for four centuries from the beginning of the sixteenth century to the present. Half of the class meetings treat the following themes: the Old World’s encounters with the New World; conversion of the “pagan” population; Western tourism to the “exotic”; professional baseball players in and from the “third world,” and Orientalism. The rest of the course deals with specific authors and their writings on the “third world.” Students will be required to complete a major primary source-based research paper on a topic of their choosing. (4 credits, ILS)

324/424 Slavery in Latin America and the Caribbean 

This course examines how the institution of slavery was transplanted in Latin America and the Caribbean during the sixteenth century, why slavery developed in some parts of Latin America and the Caribbean (and why not in other regions), and how the institution was eventually abolished by the last decades of the nineteenth century. It also examines other important topics, such as the transatlantic slave trade; gender and ethnicity; family and kinship; uprisings and rebellions; and the historical formation of the Black Atlantic. (4 credits, ILS)

326/426 Gender and Power in Latin America 

This course discusses various topics concerning gender and power in Latin American history from the late colonial period to the present time. By reading articles and monographs written by historians, life histories, women’s narratives, as well as by viewing four Latin American films, we will be able to relate our own experiences to women and men in Latin America. We will also compare and contrast the experiences of different groups of women according to such factors as race, ethnicity, and class. Students will be required to complete a major primary source-based research paper on a topic of their choosing. (4 credits, ILS)

327/427 Revolutions in Latin America and the Caribbean 

This course examines four cases of attempts to change fundamentally the social structure and the social basis of political power in Latin America and the Caribbean. They are: Haiti, 1789-1820; Mexico, 1910-1934; Bolivia, 1952-1960; and Cuba, 1959-1995. The four revolutions represented attempts – not always entirely successfully – of altering the fundamental ways the social basis of political power. The course attempts to ascertain the degree of indelible change imposed by the revolutionary experience. (4 credits, ILS)

330/430 North American Slavery 

This course examines African slavery in British North America/the United States from 1619 to 1865. Topics include the historiography of slavery; the origins of New World slavery; Africa and its relation to the slave trade; the various regional plantation/slave systems; African cultures in North America; resistance and rebellion; slavery and the American Revolution; the 19th century expansion of slavery; the Civil War and emancipation; research methods; and historical writing. Students will be required to complete a major primary source-based research paper on a topic of their choosing. (4 credits, ILS)

331/431 Women in American Health Care 

This course examines the changing roles of women in American health care from the colonial period to the present, emphasizing the roles of women in delivering and reforming health care as professionals and activists; in receiving health care as patients; and as workers in health care occupations. We will strive to analyze the continuity and change in women’s roles, the challenges, the progress, and the current problems. A major focus is an analysis of the power relationships that affect women as both recipients and providers of health care. Special emphasis will be given to issues of class, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, and disability. Students will be required to complete a major primary source-based research paper on a topic of their choosing. Pre-requisites: HIST 104 or 242, or permission of the Instructor. (4 credits, ILS)

332/432 Colonial America 

This course examines North America, with an emphasis on the region that became the United States, from the time of Columbus to 1763. Topics include the historiography of early America; encounters between Europeans and native peoples; European settlement; the development of regional economies and societies; gender and women’s lives; the emergence of slavery and the roots of racism; imperial politics; resistance and dissident movements; research methods; and historical writing. Students will be required to complete a major primary source-based research paper on a topic of their choosing. (4 credits, ILS)

333/433 Revolutionary America 

This course will examine the American Revolution and the Early Republic, 1763-1815. Topics include the historiography of the American Revolution; the imperial crisis; republicanism(s); the War of the Revolution; the Confederation Era and Constitution; the first party system; slavery and race; women and gender; research methods; and historical writing. Students will be required to complete a major primary source-based research paper on a topic of their choosing. (4 credits, ILS)

334/434 Jacksonian America 

This course examines the United States between 1815 and 1848, focusing on the impact of the Market Revolution on Americans of all backgrounds. Important themes include the construction of “democracy” and citizenship, transformations in labor, the rise of evangelical religion, the emergence of reform movements, expansionism, the growth of plantation agriculture, and slave resistance. Students will be required to complete a major primary source-based research paper on a topic of their choosing. (4 credits, ILS)

337/437 Civil War and Reconstruction 

This course examines the United States between 1848 and 1877, focusing on the fall of slavery and the rise of wage labor in the North, South, and West, and related topics, such as African American resistance, the transformation of household and gender relations, and the realignment of the American political system. The course will also draw comparisons with the shift from slave to free labor in other societies, including Haiti, Jamaica, Cuba, and Brazil. Students will be required to complete a major primary source-based research paper on a topic of their choosing. (4 credits, ILS)

342/442 The View from 9/11 

U.S. Security before and after 9/11. This seminar is designed around the theme of national security, especially foreign threats to national security and their ramifications on the domestic scene, from post-World War II to present. Our major question is whether our responses to the 9/11 attacks and our current foreign policy represent continuity or change in American history. In addressing this question, we will examine the Cold War, the Cuban Missile Crisis, and issues in the Vietnam War as examples from our foreign policy. Likewise, we will examine selected issues on the home front, i.e., the domestic scene, especially McCarthyism, the perception of the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcolm X, and Black Power as threats to security and the impact of the Civil Rights Movement on foreign policy. We will also consider financial, environmental and medical threats. Students will be required to complete a major primary source-based research paper on a topic of their choosing. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. (4 credits, ILS)

343/443 Issues in 20th Century U.S. Women’s History 

This upper-division seminar focuses on women’s changing role in the twentieth century United States. The course looks at women’s changing economic, social, cultural, and political role, paying particular attention to the intersection of race, class, gender, ethnicity, and sexuality. Particular topics of study include the modern feminist movement, legal reform, politics, women and business, women’s labor, and popular culture. Feminist theory will be a major component in the course. Students will be required to complete a major primary source-based research paper on a topic of their choosing. (4 credits, ILS)

350/450 Advanced Topics in History 

From time to time the department will offer advanced courses in particular topics in history. Students will be required to complete a major primary source-based research paper on a topic of their choosing. Students may elect HIST 350 more than once, provided they do not repeat the same topic. (4 credits)

361/461 European Imperialism 

This advanced seminar will examine the interaction between Europeans, Africans and Asians from 1750 to the present. Issues addressed will include the European use of science and religion to justify their rule over other societies; how the culture of imperialism shaped perceptions of gender and race; how certain Indian and African nationalists argued against imperial rule; and the challenges of the post-colonial era. Because of the scope of the subject, a substantial portion of the course will focus on British and French imperialism in Africa and India from 1850 to 1970. Prerequisites: HIST 212, 213, 261 or 266; or permission of the instructor. (4 credits, ILS)

362/462 Becoming National 

Students will survey the development of the nation as a modern cultural identity and the foundation for appropriate political association and representation. The course will consider the pre-modern forms of cultural identity and political organization to emphasize the relatively recent historical appearance of the nation in political discourse. The readings will juxtapose this European model on the colonial and post-colonial worlds. Finally, the students will consider the political alternatives for nations as viable political agents in the twenty first world. Prerequisite a global history survey (HIST 160-9). (4 credits, ILS)

378/478 American Foreign Relations, 1898 to the Present 

The goal is to better understand the underlying philosophies, concepts, and tensions present in our foreign relations; the domestic and international context of events and policies, and the continuity and change over more than a century. Students analyze patterns, concepts/theories and the historians’ changing interpretations of foreign relations, i.e., historiography. Students learn to employ lenses/perspectives to analyze topics: Liberal Commercial World Order and Mission; National Security, Core Values, and Power; Bureaucracy and Politics; World Systems and Hegemony; Race and Ethnicity; Gendering of Peoples and Nations; and Cultural Interactions and Personality. Students will be required to complete a major primary source-based research paper on a topic of their choosing. Prerequisite: By permission of the instructor. (4 credits, ILS)

383/483 Epidemics in Modern History 

This advanced seminar will examine how epidemic disease influenced the political, social, and economic life of European societies in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Industrialization and urbanization increasingly concentrated the population of Europe in cities, which created new challenges for containing the spread of contagious disease. At the same time, political democratization within European states and intensified national rivalry between them elevated the health and well being of their citizens to a national priority. Many European states thus looked to medical science and public health reforms to safeguard their citizens from epidemics and promote political stability and national prowess. By considering how different European societies have struggled since 1800 with cholera, tuberculosis, and other epidemics, this seminar will explore the political and economic, as well as scientific, dimensions to managing health and disease in modern European societies. Students will be required to complete a major primary source-based research paper on a topic of their choosing. Pre-requisites: HIST 212 or 213 or 283 or permission of instructor. (4 credits, ILS)

450 Advanced Seminars in History 

A series of special courses to enable students in focused individual and group research, to share work in progress, and practice the discipline. (3 credits)

490 Senior Seminar/Thesis 

Required of all majors. This capstone seminar and research essay entails a focused and in-depth research project that demonstrates familiarity with appropriate primary sources and the existing historical literature on the subject. Students share research progress in a regularly scheduled seminar setting, work closely with an individual faculty mentor, and present their completed work in a public defense. Prerequisite: C grade or better in History 422. (4 credits)

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