• A Hartwick professor helping a student during class.
  • A Hartwick student using a microscope for research.
  • A Hartwick professor discussing Botany with a student.
  • A Hartwick student using a microscope in the science lab.

History Courses

Methods:
322 Historical Methods

Perspectives in U. S. History:
These foundational courses examine the full sweep of American history from the perspective of a particular critical lens.
103 American Political History
104 Race and Ethnicity in American History
107 American Labor History
150 Introductory Topics in History

240 American Environmental Relations

241 Environmental Injustice

242 Women in American History

Perspectives in Global History:
These foundational courses examine the eras in global history from the perspective of a particular critical lens.
161  Pre-modern Roots of Cultural Diversity
162 Human Civilization and the Natural World Since 1500
164 Race and Identity
165  Free and Unfree Labor

261 Indian Ocean World

262 Politics of Identity

Areas of Specialization:

275 American Indian History to 1700

Advanced
440 Historiography
450 Advanced Seminars in History

Senior Thesis
490 Senior Seminar/Thesis

103 American Political History: This course examines politics in British North America/United States up to the present day.  Topics include: the politics of empire and independence; the emergence of an American political culture; the Confederation era and the drafting of the U.S. Constitution; the origins and workings of the party systems; the changing concept of citizenship especially in regard to race, class, and gender; the rise and fall of the liberal state.  (3 credits)

104 Race and Ethnicity in American History:  This course is a survey of the dynamic of race and ethnicity from the colonial era to the present day.  Topics include: Native Americans and the project of colonization; the rise of slavery and the birth of African American culture; race and republican citizenship; the politics of "whiteness," labor and immigration; the operation of a black/white racial binary in a multi-ethnic society; the rise of scientific racism; and strategies of opposition and resistance. (3 credits)

150 Introductory Topics in History:  From time to time the department will offer courses for small groups of students, particularly freshmen.  Students may elect HIST 150 more than once, provided they do not repeat the same topic. (3 credits)

161  Pre-modern Roots of Cultural Diversity:  This course will introduce students to the diverse cultures of the pre-modern world.  The descriptions and analyses of these cultures will highlight their distinct religious and ethical systems and their definitions of political identities.  Following a survey of the historical roots of these cultural and political systems, the course will examine their distinct responses to world wide crises in political and social order from the third to tenth centuries C.E.  The final section of the class will survey the world in the century prior to the era of European oversees expansion. (3 credits) 

162 Human Civilization and the Natural World Since 1500:  A survey of social, political, cultural and economic developments in world history, focusing on the diversity of cultural perspectives on humanity's relation to the natural world, the use of material resources, and the organization of production.  Major themes will include exploration; trade routes and global economy; comparative systems of explaining the place of human beings in the world (science, philosophy, religion); and the relationship between these scientific, philosophical, and religious systems and dominant political and social orders.  (3 credits)

164 Race and Identity:  How do you define "race" in the United States?  How do you identify yourself?  Are you aware how other people (and society) label you as a member of a certain racial group?  Are there any critical conflicts between society's categorization and individual identities?  How can the notion of race differ in a specific historical context?  Could your individual racial identity change in a different time and space?  This course discusses various important issues of race and identity not only in the U.S. but also in other parts of the New World with a comparative historical perspective. (3 credits)

165  Free and Unfree Labor:  This course is a survey of world labor history, focusing on the period 1500-present.  The first unit examines the various forms of unfree labor, including serfdom, slavery, servitude, and peonage.  The second unit surveys the ways in which laboring people resisted and sought to shape their own worlds.  The final unit examines labor during and after the Age of Revolution, focusing on the rise of wage labor and its attendant problems, as well as workers' movements.  Special attention will be paid to the connections between class, race, and gender.  (3 credits)

201 Colonial Latin America:  This course is an overview of the most significant historical processes and themes that contributed to the formation, evolution and development of Colonial Latin America.  The course studies the main streams that have contributed to the emergence of Latin America, from pre-Columbian cultures and the first encounter between the Old and New Worlds to the military, religious and bureaucratic conquests of the New World and the formation and evolution of a colonial society that came to an end with the Wars of Independence from Spain in the early 19th century. (3 credits)

202 Modern Latin America:  This course examines the most significant themes, events and personages that played an important role in shaping contemporary Latin America. The period under examination encompasses the two centuries beginning with the precursors of the Wars of Independence in the 19th century and the events taking place at the close of the 20th century.  (3 credits)

208 History of Republican and Imperial Rome:  An introduction to the history and culture of the ancient Romans from their origins up to the death of Constantine. The class explores the life, beliefs and institutions of these people through an examination of their cultural and political achievements. (3 credits)

209 Medieval Europe:  This course traces the emergence of Europe through the synthesis of Greek, Christian, Roman and Germanic cultures. The survey will begin with the collapse of the Pax Romana in the third century and conclude with the crisis of the 14th century and its immediate aftermath. The survey will focus on Western Europe, but the class will discuss Byzantium and Islam as unique civilizations, which profoundly influenced European culture.  (3 credits)

210 Early Modern Europe:  This course first examines the birth of modern Europe in the Italian Renaissance.  It then considers the religious and political forces, which shredded the fabric of Christian unity and ushered in an age of religious and dynastic warfare that produced the modern constitutional and absolutist states. The survey will then examine the cultural, economic and political impact of overseas exploration, the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment. The survey culminates with a close examination of the French and Industrial Revolutions. (3 credits)

212 Europe, 1815-1914:  Pivotal events in nineteenth-century European History, including:  Industrialization and its consequences; political revolutions and ideologies: nationalism; the labor question; and cultural and intellectual movements such as Romanticism.  Attention will also be devoted to the prevailing cultural assumptions about race, class and gender which defined Europeans' sense of identity and their place in the world, as well as scientific and economic theories which were used to justify European imperialism. (3 credits)

213  Europe in Twentieth Century:  Major events in twentieth-century European history, including the origins and catastrophic nature of World War I; the Russian revolution and Communist and Fascist challenges to strained democratic societies; economic depression; World War II and the Holocaust; the Cold War and the eclipse of Europe by the Superpowers; the loss of colonial empires; reform and revolution in Eastern and Western Europe, and the gradual formation of a more cooperative European community;  emerging challenges of globalization in the twenty-first century (economic conflict, immigration, sustainable development. (3 credits)

215 Tudor-Stuart History:   A survey of Tudor-Stuart English history (ca. 1485-1688), one of the most important periods of Western European history as it shaped much of English society into the present even as it served as a baseline for much of what would be reinforced, continued, or altered as the English confronted the complexities of the "New World." (3 credits)

216 Witchcraft and Witch-Hunting Between 1450 and 1750, European authorities engaged in witch-hunting in Europe and later in their overseas colonies. This class will explore the educated theories and popular beliefs regarding witchcraft, examine individual cases, and explore the actual and imagined practices identified as diabolical witchcraft by the hunters. We will read extensively in the new, contentious, and rich literature on witchcraft and witch-hunting. We also will work with descriptive and prescriptive primary sources. Student work will include review essays of the extant literature, an individual research project, a mid-term, and a final exam. (3 credits)

219 Imagined Communities in France An interactive, cross-cultural study of the historical construction of the French sense of identity and the different forms of "community" (national, historical, cultural, and religious) in which the identity of being "French" is either invented or challenged. France will serve as a test case for some of the broader issues in the formation of community throughout Europe. Although the program will be based in the Loire valley city of Tours, students will visit Paris, the chateaux of the Loire Valley, and other historic and cultural centers. Offered off-campus, in France, in January Term. (4 credits, EL)

225 History of Brazil:  Through lecturers, readings, and discussions, together with films and slides, this course examines changes and continuities in Brazilian history from independence (1822) to the present.  Special emphasis is placed on race, class, gender, and ethnicity.  We will discuss how colonial heritages determined the "fate" of Brazil as a modern nation-state; and how various forms of power relationship emerged, evolved, disappeared, and/or transformed during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.  (3 credits)

240 American Environmental Relations: An exploration of American attitudes toward the natural environment, the course will examine the roots of nature appreciation and the genesis of the conservation movement in its utilitarian, ecological and aesthetic camps, and will trace the environmental movement to the present.  (3 credits)

241 Environmental Injustice This course analyzes the historical connection between the degradation of people, e.g., communities of color, and degradation of the environment, that is the link between racism/poverty and pollution. We begin with an analysis of the conditions of enslaved Blacks and the soil in the tobacco and cotton South. In the modern period, we analyze environmental and social issues in migrant agricultural labor, as well as environmental degradation in communities of color and/or poverty. We utilize the analytical lenses of race, ethnicity, regionalism, gender and class. However, in our analysis we are very careful NOT to portray the community members or agricultural workers as simply "victims." Thus, we also focus on their diverse responses, e.g., protesting and organizing, for example, forming the United Farm Workers (UFW). Also, more subtle forms of environmental injustice will be discussed, e.g., the economically privileged nature of many environmental "solutions" and campaigns. For our research project (paper/presentation), students conduct research on evidence of environmental injustices and organized responses in their home community/area. (3 credits, EL)

242 Women in American History:  A survey of women's collective experience in America from the colonial period to the present. Emphasis will be upon the relationship of defined sex roles to the broader society in a given historical context. Topics include women and family life, women on the frontier, Black and ethnic women, the impact of industrialization upon women's roles and feminism as a historical movement. [WHS] (3 credits)

244 Baseball in American History:  This course is not a history of baseball; rather, it uses baseball to examine important issues in American history.  Among these themes are industrialization and the rise of leisure time, race and segregation, immigration and ethnicity, gender, labor, and national identity. (3 credits)

245 World War II on the Home Front:  When students enroll in this course, they enlist "for the duration," in order to "reconstruct" the Home Front from Pearl Harbor to "V-J" Day.  This course is normally taught in January Term with its daily classes in only one subject, giving students the opportunity to solely and totally concentrate their attention on this goal, making it easier to reconstruct the home front.  Daily exercises in recreating the home front include music of the period, letters, diary entries, columns by war correspondent Ernie Pyle, excerpts from oral histories, and incorporation of WWII home front artifacts.  Besides this "hands-on" approach to history, students critically analyze WWII as "The Good War" and examine the historiography, especially the debate over WWII as a "watershed" in the 20th Century, addressing the question, "was WWII's impact on society an example of continuity or change?" (3 credits)

261 Indian Ocean World, 1300-1800:  An introduction to the history of the peoples and societies of India, Arabia, and East Africa, with an emphasis on the role of trade, religion, and cultural exchange in shaping the civilizations of the Delhi Sultanate, the Mughal Empire, cities of the East African Swahili Coast and the Ottoman Empire. The course will examine the thriving
indigenous shipping and other exchange networks before the arrival of Europeans in 1498, with a primary focus on the Indian Ocean as a hub of human exchanges between India, Arabia, and Africa in the era of the classical Islamic world.  [NTW] (3 credits)

262 Politics of Identity: Globalization, Diaspora, and Cultural Diversity:  In our "global" age identity continues to be an extremely fascinating as well as complicated phenomenon.  By utilizing journalistic accounts on contemporary issues, narratives, theoretical readings, feature movies, and documentary films, this course seeks to understand who and what we are, both at individual and collective levels, with special emphasis on globalization, Diaspora, and cultural diversity.  [SBA] (3 credits)

270 Revisiting Roots The primary objective of this course, combining historiography and genealogy, is to expose similarities and differences in the portrayal of the slavery system and its impact upon the family structure of the enslaved Africans and their descendants in Great Britain, the British West Indies, and the United States. This is done by critiquing required readings, analyzing an American television series, class discussions, and research labs, including possible off-campus visits. (3 credits, EL)

273 The American South:  Is the South "different" from other parts of the United States?  Is there one South, or many Souths?  Is the very title of this class an oxymoron?  In this course we will examine that part of the United States bounded by the Edwards Plateau, the Red River, the Ohio River, and, of course, the Mason-Dixon Line, and pose these very questions.  Our starting assumption is that Southernness is essentially a historical creation.  Course themes include: conceptualizing the South; the place of the Southern colonies in the Atlantic World; the place of the Southern states in the early republic and antebellum period; race, class, and gender in Southern life; the question of change and continuity in Southern history; and the New South. (3 credits)

283 Western Medicine since 1500:  The history of Disease and its treatment in Europe and the United States since the reform of the study of anatomy by Andreas Versalius.  While the overall theme will be the development of medicine as a science and a profession, attention will also be given to traditional medicine, women as healers, epidemics and the 19th-century public health movement, and the vexed relationship between the State commercialism, and the delivery of health care after 1880. [WHS] (3 credits)

305 The Renaissance:  This course will not be a chronological survey. The origins of the idea of the "Renaissance" and how this concept has framed Western perceptions of modernity will be considered.  The functional practicality of applying this concept to Italian culture and society between 1350 and 1550 will be investigated. The course has two goals: to provide an understanding of the world of the Italian Renaissance and to critique the values we have associated with that world.  Prerequisites: 209, 210 or instructor's permission. [WHS] (3 credits)

306 Reformation Europe 1450-1600:  This course examines the dissolution of Medieval European culture as a system of regulated religious beliefs and established political relations between the Roman church and secular powers. It also will consider the economic dislocation and social tensions, which animated the Reformation passions, and examine the reintegration of these dynamic factors into new systems of belief and power during the age of confessional struggles.  Prerequisites: HIST 209, 210 or instructor's permission. [WHS] (3 credits)

308 Enlightenment and Revolution:  This course examines the efforts of 18th-century intellectuals to rationalize the experiences of the 17th-century crises. It analyzes the political and social culture of the Old Regime and the growing friction among the powerful nation-states in Europe and overseas. Finally it considers the social, economic and political pressures which culminated in the French and Industrial revolutions and traces the trajectories of those revolutions.  Prerequisites: HIST 210, 212, or instructor's permission. [WHS] (3 credits)

313 Europe and the World Wars World War I and World War II have long held a morbid fascination for many who have been both amazed and appalled at the scale of devastation that left millions dead and much of the continent in ruins. However, the impact of these wars extended beyond the battles to transform European views about the government, about women, about technology, and even about the nature of good and evil. This upper-level seminar will engage these issues through a critical examination of the historical debates about totalitarian dictatorships in Europe, the "failures" of the Versailles Treaty, anxieties about femininity, masculinity, and identity during the inter-war period, as well as other topics. Although there are no pre-requisites for this seminar, it is strongly recommended that students have some background in 20th century European history. Students will be required to complete a major primary source-based research paper on a topic of their choosing. 

314 Modern European History This course is an advanced seminar focusing on major social, political, intellectual and cultural developments in European history during the 19th and 20th centuries. The emphasis will be on how Europeans in different regions and from different segments of society lived their lives and cultivated a sense of identity and community. Key themes will include gender roles; social class; race and identity; religion; and the consequences of industrialization. In any given semester, we might consider the struggles for Irish Home Rule, the emergence of department stores in France, or insane asylums in Victorian Britain, to offer just a few examples. Students enrolled in a particular term will have the opportunity to shape the specific content and focus of the course. This course may be repeated with different content, and may focus on several European countries or one (ex. Britain or France). Students will be required to complete a major primary source-based paper on a topic of their choosing. If a student repeats the course with different content, it bears the number 315. Pre-requisites: HIST 212 or 213, or permission of instructor.

320 Travels to the "Third World" (4 credits) This seminar focuses on diverse Western writings on the "third world" (Latin America, Africa, and Asia) at various historical points for four centuries from the beginning of the sixteenth century to the present. Half of the class meetings treat the following themes: the Old World's encounters with the New World; conversion of the "pagan" population; Western tourism to the "exotic"; professional baseball players in and from the "third world," and Orientalism. The rest of the course deals with specific authors and their writings on the "third world." Students will be required to complete a major primary source-based research paper on a topic of their choosing. (ILS)


324 Slavery in Latin America and the Caribbean:  This course examines how the institution of slavery was transplanted in Latin America and the Caribbean during the sixteenth century, why slavery developed in some parts of Latin America and the Caribbean (and why not in other regions), and how the institution was eventually abolished by the last decades of the nineteenth century.  It also examines other important topics, such as the transatlantic slave trade; gender and ethnicity; family and kinship; uprisings and rebellions; and the historical formation of the Black Atlantic. [NTW] (3 credits)

326 Gender and Power in Latin America:  This course discusses various topics concerning gender and power in Latin American history from the late colonial period to the present time.  By reading articles and monographs written by historians, life histories, women's narratives, as well as by viewing four Latin American films, we will be able to relate our own experiences to women and men in Latin America.  We will also compare and contrast the experiences of different groups of women according to such factors as race, ethnicity, and class.  (3 credits)

327 Revolutions in Latin America and the Caribbean:  This course examines four cases of attempts to change fundamentally the social structure and the social basis of political power in Latin America and the Caribbean. They are: Haiti, 1789-1820; Mexico, 1910-1934; Bolivia, 1952-1960; and Cuba, 1959-1995.  The four revolutions represented attempts - not always entirely successfully - of altering the fundamental ways the social basis of political power. The course attempts to ascertain the degree of indelible change imposed by the revolutionary experience.  (3 credits)

330 North American Slavery This course examines African slavery in British North America/the United States from 1619 to 1865. Topics include the historiography of slavery; the origins of New World slavery; Africa and its relation to the slave trade; the various regional plantation/slave systems; African cultures in North America; resistance and rebellion; slavery and the American Revolution; the 19th century expansion of slavery; the Civil War and emancipation; research methods; and historical writing. Students will be required to complete a major primary source-based research paper on a topic of their choosing. (4 credits, ILS)

331 Women in American Health Care This course examines the changing roles of women in American health care from the colonial period to the present, emphasizing the roles of women in delivering and reforming health care as professionals and activists; in receiving health care as patients; and as workers in health care occupations. We will strive to analyze the continuity and change in women's roles, the challenges, the progress, and the current problems. A major focus is an analysis of the power relationships that affect women as both recipients and providers of health care. Special emphasis will be given to issues of class, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, and disability. Students will be required to complete a major primary source-based research paper on a topic of their choosing. Pre-requisites: HIST 104 or 242, or permission of the Instructor. (4 credits, ILS)

332 Colonial America This course examines North America, with an emphasis on the region that became the United States, from the time of Columbus to 1763. Topics include the historiography of early America; encounters between Europeans and native peoples; European settlement; the development of regional economies and societies; gender and women's lives; the emergence of slavery and the roots of racism; imperial politics; resistance and dissident movements; research methods; and historical writing. Students will be required to complete a major primary source-based research paper on a topic of their choosing. (4 credits, ILS)

333 Revolutionary America This course will examine the American Revolution and the Early Republic, 1763-1815. Topics include the historiography of the American Revolution; the imperial crisis; republicanism(s); the War of the Revolution; the Confederation Era and Constitution; the first party system; slavery and race; women and gender; research methods; and historical writing. Students will be required to complete a major primary source-based research paper on a topic of their choosing. (4 credits, ILS)

334 Jacksonian America:  This course examines the United States between 1815 and 1848, focusing on the impact of the Market Revolution on Americans of all backgrounds.  Important themes include the construction of "democracy" and citizenship, transformations in labor, the rise of evangelical religion, the emergence of reform movements, expansionism, the growth of plantation agriculture, and slave resistance. (3 credits)

337 Civil War and Reconstruction:  This course examines the United States between 1848 and 1877, focusing on the fall of slavery and the rise of wage labor in the North, South, and West, and related topics, such as African American resistance, the transformation of household and gender relations, and the realignment of the American political system.  The course will also draw comparisons with the shift from slave to free labor in other societies, including Haiti, Jamaica, Cuba, and Brazil. (3 credits)

341 American Consumer Culture, 1900-Present This upper-division seminar analyzes American society from the late nineteenth century to the present, focusing on historical consumption styles and practices. The history of consumer culture encompasses not only the study of advertising and shopping but also, in a broader sense, how most Americans have commodified nearly all of their experiences. We will pay special attention to race, class, gender, and ethnicity as we consider the ways that consumer culture has operated in America. Working through the late 19th and the early 20th century, we will explore the different ways that men and women took part in, and helped shape, the mass culture that flourished in an industrializing nation. As we move into the mid-twentieth century, we will look at how a rising standard of living and a national consumer culture defined American identity, with wide-reaching social, environmental, economic, and political implications that in many cases only became clear in later decades. The course will analyze the intellectual movements and ideologies that resisted materialism and mass culture in American culture. It will also study those groups who worked within the system to use their "buying power" to effect social change. Students will be required to complete a major primary source-based research paper on a topic of their choosing. (4 credits, ILS)

342 The View from 9/11: U.S. Security before and after 9/11. This seminar is designed around the theme of national security, especially foreign threats to national security and their ramifications on the domestic scene, from post-World War II to present. Our major question is whether our responses to the 9/11 attacks and our current foreign policy represent continuity or change in American history. In addressing this question, we will examine the Cold War, the Cuban Missile Crisis, and issues in the Vietnam War as examples from our foreign policy. Likewise, we will examine selected issues on the home front, i.e., the domestic scene, especially McCarthyism, the perception of the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcolm X, and Black Power as threats to security and the impact of the Civil Rights Movement on foreign policy. We will also consider financial, environmental and medical threats. Students will be required to complete a major primary source-based research paper on a topic of their choosing. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. (4 credits, ILS)

343 Issues in 20th Century U.S. Women's History This upper-division seminar focuses on women's changing role in the twentieth century United States. The course looks at women's changing economic, social, cultural, and political role, paying particular attention to the intersection of race, class, gender, ethnicity, and sexuality. Particular topics of study include the modern feminist movement, legal reform, politics, women and business, women's labor, and popular culture. Feminist theory will be a major component in the course. Students will be required to complete a major primary source-based research paper on a topic of their choosing. (4 credits, ILS)

344 American Business History Starting with the question of whether the nation has always been capitalistic, this course traces the rise of big business in the late nineteenth century through de-industrialization and globalization in the late twentieth century. Course issues or debates may include: public/private, local/national, small/big, regulation/free market, democracy/capitalism, to name just a few. The course evaluates to what degree American culture has given American enterprise its particular national character, and analyzes the ways in which business has shaped American labor systems, its environment, its social relations, and its popular culture. To this end, the course will look at the role of gender, race, class, and ethnicity in business and will examine the often close relation between big business and the state. Students will be required to complete a major primary source-based research paper on a topic of their choosing. (4 credits, ILS)

345 America Between the Wars, 1919-1941 This course examines the era between World War I and World War II, a time of great cultural, political, and economic change. During this period, the rise of the modern state changed the way Americans thought about and related to their government. Ideas about individual rights, social welfare, racial justice, gender equality, and the role of the nation in world affairs changed rapidly. In part because of this transformation, it was a period of tremendous conflict as well between different cultural groups and classes, and between different belief systems. Students will be required to complete a major primary source-based research paper on a topic of their choosing (4 credits, ILS)

350 Advanced Topics in History:  From time to time the department will offer advanced courses in particular topics in history.  Students may elect HIST 350 more than once, provided they do not repeat the same topic. (3 credits)

361 European Imperialism:  This advanced seminar will examine the interaction between Europeans, Africans and Asians from 1750 to the present.  Issues addressed will include the European use of science and religion to justify their rule over other societies; how the culture of imperialism shaped perceptions of gender and race; how certain Indian and African nationalists argued against imperial rule; and the challenges of the post-colonial era.  Because of the scope of the subject, a substantial portion of the course will focus on British and French imperialism in Africa and India from 1850 to 1970.   Prerequisites: HIST 212, 213, 261 or 266; or permission of the instructor.  [WHS] (3 credits)

362 Becoming National:  Students will survey the development of the nation as a modern cultural identity and the foundation for appropriate political association and representation.  The course will consider the pre-modern forms of cultural identity and political organization to emphasize the relatively recent historical appearance of the nation in political discourse.  The readings will juxtapose this European model on the colonial and post-colonial worlds.  Finally, the students will consider the political alternatives for nations as viable political agents in the twenty first world.  Prerequisite a global history survey (HIST 160-9). (3 credits)

378 American Foreign Relations, 1898 to the Present: The goal is to better understand the underlying philosophies, concepts, and tensions present in our foreign relations; the domestic and international context of events and policies, and the continuity and change over more than a century. Students analyze patterns, concepts/theories and the historians' changing interpretations of foreign relations, i.e., historiography. Students learn to employ lenses/perspectives to analyze topics: Liberal Commercial World Order and Mission; National Security, Core Values, and Power; Bureaucracy and Politics; World Systems and Hegemony; Race and Ethnicity; Gendering of Peoples and Nations; and Cultural Interactions and Personality. Students will be required to complete a major primary source-based research paper on a topic of their choosing. Prerequisite: By permission of the instructor. (4 credits, ILS)

450 Advanced Seminars in History:  A series of special courses to enable students in focused individual and group research, to share work in progress, and practice the discipline. (3 credits)

490 Senior Seminar/Thesis:  Required of all majors. This capstone seminar and research essay entails a focused and in-depth research project that demonstrates familiarity with appropriate primary sources and the existing historical literature on the subject.  Students share research progress in a regularly scheduled seminar setting, work closely with an individual faculty mentor, and present their completed work in a public defense.  Prerequisite: C grade or better in History 422. (4 credits)